Alexandria – a city of regional significance in Kirovograd region of Ukraine, administrative center of the district of Alexandria. The city is located at the intersection of trade routes that cross it from north to south and from west to east.
The city is first mentioned in 1746, as the settlement Usivka. The official record of the settlement is dated 1754 when in the region was built the Saint Elizabeth fortress (today Kropyvnytskyi). During establishment of the Russian colony of New Serbia in 1752-64, in Usivka was quartered the 3rd Company of New Serbia Pandurs. In place of Usivka was established encampment (sconce) Bechey (after the Serbian city of Bečej).
In 1784, the Russian government has given the settlement a Hellenic name of Aleksandriysk and later Aleksandriya (locally as Oleksandriya). In 1806-1922, Oleksandriya was a county (uyezd) seat.
On 6 August 1941 the Red Army of the Soviet Union left the city to the Nazi Germany Wehrmacht without fight. During the Nazi occupation, the city lost almost all its entire Jewish population (est. ~ 2,500). The Nazi administration also executed over 5,500 Soviet prisoners of war as part of the Nazi stance on the issue of the Soviet’s not signing the 1929 Geneva Convention. The city was recovered by the Soviet armed forces on 6 December 1943. During the World War II most of the city’s urban massif was left intact as there was no street fighting.